Scientific basis of the ReadingOCI dyslexia treatment method

Doc. Tapani Rahko has tested some 10 000 patients during over 10 years with his positional vertigo tests. The age varies from 3,5 years to 94 years.

The reading speed has been measured before and after positional treatments in some 3500 cases to obtain information on the effect. The result was better after treatments.

The first peer reviewed report on the effect to the reading and learning problems was in Finnish Medical Journal2003; 39:3883-3886. The detailed method was described in net appendix

The tests and treatment to superior canal have been published peer reviewed in international scientific journals and cited in other publications Eur Arch Oto Rhino Laryng2001;258:112-115 and Clinical Otolaryng 2002;58:392-395

The explanation to peripheral eye movement disturbance background is verified by Ram-Tsur et al Investigative Ophtalmology and Visual Science 2006;47:4401-4409.

The reading speed increase was 40% and words were read more correct.

The mathematics results were 2 or more numbers better in a third. It probably relied on that the questions were easier to understand, when they were seen. The same trend was seen in other subjects.

2005 adult material with Hatara and Hakkarainen with Niilo Mäki Institute tests the results were of the same order (unpublished)

In Rahko material 335 patients the results were the same again ( unpublished)

With Yliherva and Rantala in Puhe ja kieli 2007;27:2,81-90 again the same results.

2009 In Sotek Foundation project in Kotka on the youngsters the results again the same.

In the newest material 2007 with Yliherva ,Rantala, Veteläinen Haapalehto and Kataja ( as manuscript) a randomized positionally treated dyslexia child material got better hearing cognition and better short term memory ; hearing pseudowords in NEPSY test and remembering number series in WISC III. The p values were in former <0.0005 and latter p<0.02.
Untreated and normal children shoved no statistically significant change.

Even these possible backgrounds of dyslexia got better with this treatment.

Right-left discrimination gets normal.

The coordination gets normal.

In part of the motor problems regarded as inherited changes are seen.

The compensatory muscle tension disappears unnecessary. This creates vasodilatation and the changes dependent on that will appear.

The eye movement guidance problems diminish; double vision etc.

The problems in visual feed and auditive feed canal produce frustration and the person may develop disturbing compensatory behaviour types. A part of these regarded as independent psychiatric diseases will disappear, when cognition and learning capacity improve. In young children the phenomenon was very clearly seen, because the children could maintain thus the interaction with their social group as equal members of the group. The self-esteem as if exploded, when the children could communicate at the same level as others. The material has been collected.

Equally the simultaneous symptoms motion sickness, acrophobia, agoraphobia, afraid of lifts and narrow places are got rid of.

What will be done: When you have positional vertigo or milder form OCI ( Otolith Canal Irritation) otoconias, very tiny calcium carbonate granules, get moving. The function of these is to tell with their bigger inertia to underlying nerve cells in utricle to which direction the movement is and how much.

A part of population has inherited a tendency of these otoconias to wander to semicircular canals..
This phenomenon is more common as believed. It is now found with more sensitive tests.

There are three canals on both sides: posterior, horizontal and superior or anterior.

The granules produce random disturbances in the rotation analysis input and the guidance of the eye movements is deficient. Thus the picture born at retina is inaccurate and is fixed in brain as inaccurate memory imprint. Its quality and processing presumes more workload by the brain and the result is worse.

The sight is quite bad. The sight in foveolar area is inaccurate. The width of the sight field as accurate is quite narrow. ( The effect on driving ability might be interesting). This phenomenon imitates a central process, although the problem is of peripheral origin. The appearances deceive.
When the positional treatments to all three canals are performed, jumping of lines, to and fro reading , interspace difficulties of words and guesswork disappear. Thus we have more capacity to process the text, not only concentrate on looking, what is to be seen. That gives the additional capacity to process to the brain; the basis of the problems is not the lacking structural central brain capacity. It is just functional and can be corrected. The continuous treatment is mandatory. Why wait until there are problems. Through cleaning of the canals the acceleration and movement analysis input is accurate continuously and thus eye movement guidance.

The strict structural models must be broken and functional models are added. The plasticity and capacity of the brain is immense as eg. Merzenich states.

All the canals must be treated. The historic assumption of the necessity of visible nystagmus excludes smaller disturbances, which disappear in noise, but produce the problems. The often expressed relation of vertigo to nystagmus is not linear; without nystagmus there are quite much equilibrium phenomenons. Thus the clinical results justify methods, nystagmus is not the criterion; it is just easy to observe and measure, and has thus gained unjust position in vertigo studies.

Structural brain deviations and problems naturally exist, but their amount is much less than proposed. Plasticity is the key.

It is sensible to abolish the peripheral visual component of dyslexia in an half hour process.
The persons usually have some of the following symptoms
acrophobia, agoraphobia, motion sickness, lift and narrow place phobia, aviophobia, panic symptoms.
They are not able to read in car,difficulties in carousell, difficult to discriminate right and left, skating , downhill. ballet, dancing to some direction.

Children must be followed if they:
don't climb, are accident prone, run with broad feet stance in short steps, are clumsy

They may screw their eyes, speech may be difficult in different ways, cognition problems, different delays, concentration problems, inability follow the social scene. hyperactivity, adhd, add, coordination problems.
The materials have been collected.

This method is honed to a practical tool with very large material during seven years and will be distributed globally.

TestOCI, PractiseOCI and MinimizeOCI

Following pictures illustrate these phenomenons described above

4th image
The comparison of usual pc input functions to the way as the brain processes input information: The case dyslexia

Last image
nystagmus computers 1978 and. 1985 The law of Moore is seen . The first was Motorola 6800 based, the latter between 286 and 386 capacity.

The way of computer analysis in equilibrium study ended to too narrow a scope of observations in too complicatedly compensated network system. The clinical results give the best evidence of the real benefits of different treatments. That is natural

 

Tapani Rahko website http://www.kolumbus.fi/tapani.rahko

PUBLICATIONS LIST

T.Rahko:SISI test and adaptation.Subjects with normal hearing
Acta Otolaryng.,72,344-351,1971

T.Rahko: SISI test and adaptation.Subjects with conductive
hearing defects,Acta Otolaryng.,80,67-73,í975

T.Rahko:SISI test and adaptation.Subjects with perceptive
hearing defects.,Acta Otolaryng.,80,74-80,1975

T.Rahko:SISI test and adaptation,väitöskirja,0ulun Yliopis-
to,1975

T.Rahko,E.Aantaa:Equilibrial disturbances caused by hearing
aids in hard of hearing children.Journal Laryngol,Otol.
91,357-759,1977

T.Rahko,E.Virolainen:The Eustachian tube function in secre-
tory otitis media in children.Scand.Audio1.6,133-136,1977

.A.Salmivalli,T.Rahko,E.Virolainen:The effect of loud noise
on the vestibular system.Scand.Audiol.6,139-141,1977

T.Rahko,S.Ikonen,M.Janas,T.Pesonen:Results of hearing tes-
ting at 7-year follow up of kanamycin-treated newborn in-
fants,ORL,40,249-257,1978

E.Virolainen,P.Tuohimaa,T.Rahko,A.Koivikko The effects of
streptomycin on hearing and equilibrium in the neonatal period
A follow up study.Minerva Otolaryng.28,87-90,1978

T.Rahko,U.Virolainen:ENG findings in perceptive hearing
defects after different tone stimuli,Minerva Otolaryng.
28,139-144,1978

T.Rahko,E.Virolainen,P.Tuohimaa,A,The effects
of streptomycin on hearing in the neonatal period,Scand.
Audiol.,Suppl 8 ,206-209,1977

T.Rahko,V.Häkkinen:Carbamazepine in the treatment of ob-
jective myoclonus tinnitus.Journal Otol.Laryngol.93,127-
127,1979

T.Rahko,M.Karjalainen,U,Laine,S,Lavonen: Speech audiometry
by a speech synthesizer, A preliminary report.Arch,0to-
Rhino-Laryngol. 222,85-89,1979

T.Rahko,A.Koivikko,P.Silvonniemi:The occurrence of secre-
tory otitis media in allergic children.Clin,0tolaryng,
4,267-270,1979

H.Puhakka,E.Virolainen,T.Rahko:Long term results ín myrin-
goplasty with temporalis fascia.Journal Otol.Laryngol,93 ,1081-
1086,1979

T.Rahko,P,Karma,T.Torikka,J,Malmivuo:Microprocessor based
four-channel electronystagmography system.Med.&Biol.Eng.&
Computing,104-108,1980

T.Rahko,U.Laine,M.Karjalainen,A,Lavonen: The effect of word
speed,number of words,and habituation on the discrimina-
tion score of synthesized speech.Ann.0tol.Rhinol.Laryngol.
89,69-71,1980

M.Karjalainen,U.Laine,T,Rahko:Speech synthesizer in the
Finnish language.Folia Phoniatr.32,309-314,1980

E.Virolainen,H.Puhakka,T.Rahko:The cochlear component
in operated otosclerosis after a mean period of 16 years.
Audiolo gy. 19,101-104,1980

Rahko, T.. Karjalainen, M.. Laine. U.. Kurppa. K.
ja Karma, P. A new method to increase the con-
cept capacity of children with early deafness.
Acta Otolaryngol, 1982, suppl. 386. 35-36

Rahko, T., Karma, P., Torikka, T. & Malmivuo. J.
Microprocessor based, four-channel electronystagmo~
graphy system. Medical & Biological Engineering &
Conputing 1980. 18, 104-108.

Rahko. K.T., Karjalainen. M., Laine, U., Karma,
P. and Toivonen. R. Clinical applications of and
experiences with a portable, unlimited text-
to-speecs synthesizer. Ear and Hearing 1981.
2, 4, 177-199.

Rahko. T. and Karma. P. ABR in pediatric
audiology. Scand. Audiology 1981. suppl. 13.
151-153.

Rahko. T.. Aantaa, E., Laitakari, K. and Man-
ninen, K. Audiological and vestibular findings
in long term hormonal treatment. ORL 1981,
43, 328-335.

Rahko, T. ja Karma, P. A method to break cogni
tive barrier between a deaf child and a hearing
patient. Int. J. Ped. Otorhinolaryngol. 1983, 5,
173-178

Rahko T, Baer M, Virolainen E, Karma P. Audiological
and vestibular findings in 219 cases of meningitis.
Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 1984, 140, 15-20.

Karma P, Rahko T. New clinical finging in vestibular
neuritis: High-frequency audiometer hearing loss in
the affected ear. Laryngoscope 1986, 96. ss. 198-199.

Rahko A, Karma P, Rahko T, Kataja M. High-frequency hearing
of dental personnel. -Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1988;
16:268-270

Rahko T, Karma P. High frequency audiometry in facial
paralysis. -Acta otolaryngol (Stockh) 1988; 161-163.

Rahko T, Karma P. The use of high frequency audiometry
in clinical practice. A preliminary report, -Oto-Rino-
Laring 1988; 38: 33-7.

Rahko T, Karma P, Pitkäjärvi T, Nurminen H, Kataja M.
The prevalence of handicapping hearing loss in a middle-
aged population in Finland. -Arch Otorhinolaryngol (1988)
245: 57-59.

Karma P, Sipilä M, Rahko T. Hearing and hearing loss in 5-
year-old children. Pure tone thresholds and the effect o£
acute otitis media. - Scand Audiol 1989, 18, 199-203.

Rahko T, Karma P. Pure tone hearing thresholds in otologi·
cally healthy 5-year-old children in Finland. - Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1989, 246, 137-141.

Rahko T, Karma P, Sipilä M. Sensorineural hearing loss and
acute otitis media. - Acta Otolaryngol 1989, 108, 107-112

Rahko T, Karma P. Low and high-frequency hearing in patients with Menieres disease. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 1990, 247, 329-332.

P Laitila P Karma M Sipilä M Manninen T Rahko Extended high frequency hearing and history of acutet otitis media in 14 year old children in Finland Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh ) Suppl 529 : 1997 hyv julk

T Rahko V Kotti Comparison of carbogen inhalation and intravenous heaprin infusion therapies in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh ) Suppl 529 : 1997 hyv julk

T Rahko V Kotti Tinnitus treatment by transcutaneous nerve stimulation TNS Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh ) Suppl 529 : 1997 hyv julk

T Rahko P Kumpulainen H Ihalainen E Ojala O aumala A new analysis method for the evaluation of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh ) Suppl 529 : 1997 hyv julk

Rahko T, Kallio V, Fagerström K, Kataja M, Kar-
ma P. Prevalence of handicapping hearing loss in an
ageing population. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol
1985; 94:14-4.

Rahko T, Karma P, Torikka T. The comparison of
computer analysis and visual calculations in caloric
tests. Estratto da Otonrhinolaringologia 1985; 35:
457-60.

Rahko T, Karma P. Transdermal scopolamine for
peripheral vertigo (a double blind study). J La-
ryngol Otol 1985; 99:7:65-66.

Kujansuu E, Rahko T, Punnonen R, Karma P. Evaluation of the
hearing loss associated vith cis-platinum treatment by high
frequency audiometry. - Gynecol Oncol 1989, 33, 321-322.

Palmu A, Puhakka H, Rahko T, Takala A Diagnostic value of tympanometry in infants in clinical practice Int J Ped Otorhinolaryngol 1999;49:207-213

KUMPULAINEN, P., RAHKO, T., Estimating the hearing level using time-dependent
spectrum of the otoacoustic emission. XIV IMEKO WORLD CONGRESS. New
Measurements-Challenges and Visions. Vol. VII. Topic 10, 13. Proceedings.
Editor: Jouko Halttunen. ISBN 952-5
183-00-9. June 1-6, 1997, Tampere, Finland. s. 169-173.

KUMPULAINEN, P., RAHKO, T., LAITILA, P., OJALA, E., IHALAINEN, H. & KARMA, P.,
TEOA Findings in Adolescents. XVI IMEKO World Congress, IMEKO 2000.
Proceedings, Vol. XI, TC 17. ISMCR´2000. Editors: Osanna, P., Durakbasa, M.,
Afjehi-Sadat, A. Austrian Society for Measurement and Automation. Ögma at Öiav
and Öve. ISBN 3-901888-13-6. Vienna, Austria, Sept. 25-28, 2000. s. 265-269.

Laitila P, Karma P, Sipilä M, Rahko T. The pure tone hearing thresholds of otologically healthy children. Audiology, 2001 hyväks julk
Rahko T, Kotti V. Walk -rotate-walk test identifies the patients responding to Lempert´s manever, with benign psroxysmal positional vertigo of the horizontal canal. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2001,258:112-115

P Karma P Laitila M Sipilä M Manninen T Rahko Sensorineural hearing and childhood acute otitis media in adolescents Kirjassa Recent advances in otitis media 1996 B.C. Decker Inc.
367-369

Karma P, "Sipilä M, "Rahko KT
TI: Hearing and history of acute otitis media in childhood.
SO: Proceedings of the V (nternational Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media (eds. Dj Lim,
Bluestone, JO Klein. JD Nelson, PL Ogra), BC Decker Inc, Philadelphia, PA PP 552-554, 1993.

Rahko T. Medical treatment of tinnitus. In: New di-
mension in otorhinolaryngology. Ed.E.N.Myers.
Exerpta Medica, Amsterdam-New York-Oxford,
1985: 1:468-470.

Rahko TK, Karma PH. Impedance audiometry in five-year-old
and the effect of acute otitis media
Kirjassa Proceedings of World Congress of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Madrid, 1990 ed T sacristan JJ Alvarez -Vicent J Bartual F Andolfi Candela Kugler & Ghedini Publ 983-987

T.Rahko,M.Karjal ainen ,U.Laine ,P.Karma:An unl imi ted
text-to-speech synthesizer - A communication aid for the
deaf. Pyyd. Julk.Proceedings of International Congress
on the Education of the Deaf,Hampuri,l980.

Ojala E, **Rahko T, Aumala J. (1991) Forvard suppression in transient evoked otoacoustic emission measurement. Proceedings of the 9 th FASE symposium 1991, Balatonfured, Hungary, pp. 73-78.

Ojala E, Nystedt H, Ihalainen H, **Rahko T. (1991). Suppression and artefact rejection in transient evoked otoacoustic emission measurement. Proc 5th IAPA symposium 1991 Pecs, Hungary.

Laine. U. ja Rahko. T. Perceptual evaluation of
naturalness of vowels from terminaianalog syn-
thesis. Kirjassa: The representation of speech in
the peripheral auditory svstem. (eds. R. Carlson
ja B. Granström). 279-234. Elsevier Biomedical
Press. Amsterdam. 1982

T,Torikka,J,Malmivuo,T.Rahko,P.Karma:Multichannel ENG
analysator using a microprocessor.Proceedings of the third
national meeting on biophysics and medical engineering
in Finland,Lappeenranta,1-3,1979

P Kumpulainen T Rahko Estimating the hearing level using time dependent spectrum of the otoacustic emission Kirjassa new measurements challenges and visions .(toim E Halttunen ) 7:169-173. Finnish Society of Automation 1977
ISBN 952-5183-00-9

Rahko, T., Torikka, T. ja Karma, P. The com-
parison of visual calculations and computer ana-
lysis in caloric tests. Proceedings of the Nordic
Symposium on Data Processing of Eye Mcve
ments,1982: 37-38

Karvonen A-L, Rahko T, Vaajalahti P, Jouppila J. Suolisto-
tulehdukseen liittyvä sensorineuraalinen kuurous ja iriitti
- epätyypillinen Coganin syndrooma? -Duodecim 104:
1260-1263, 1988.

T.Rahko:Koanaaliatresia,Duodecim,85,170-

Lehtimäki T, Peltomaa T, Laukkanen A, Dastidar P,Pirttilä T, Rahko T.Huimaukseen liittyvä jännitysniska Duodecim 114:783-785 1998

Trahko V Kotti. Vaakasuoran kaarikäytävän kanalolitiaasista johtuva asentohuimaus-alidiagnosoitu häiriö Duodecim 115:633-688,1999

T.Rahko: Uusi menetelmä meluvammalöydöksen varmistamiseksi.
Suom.Lää1.1.32,694,1977

T.Vesikari,M.Väisänen,P.Ojala,M.Ra
T.Rahko,A,Sonninen,T.Jauhiainen:Vihurirokon seuranta syn-
nynnäisen kuulovamman perusteella.Suom.lääk.1,32,
2593-2598,1977

T.Rahko: Herätepotentiaaliaudiometrian viimeaikainen
kehitys.Suom.lääk.l.73,2571-2537,1978

T.Rahko,P.Karma:Iskumelu.Suom.lääk.l.34,6

M.Karjalainen,U.Laine,T,Rahko,P.Karma:Puhesyntetisaattori
Suom.Lääk.1,34,2991-2994,1979

Pääkkönen R, Oksa P, Rahko T, Karma P. Kuulonseu-
lonta ja melumittaus terveyshuollossa. S Lääk L
1987;43: 1265-1270.

Rahko T, Karma P. Korvatulehduksen vaikutus lapsen kuuloon
Suomen Lääkäril. 1989, 44, 1444-1447.

'Rahko T.
TI: Huimauspotilaan esitutkimus ja hoito terveyskeskuksessa.
SO: Suomen Lääkarilehti 1994;30: 3039-3044

Rahko. T.. Nieminen. J. and Karma. P. Infraääni
ja sen vaikutus ihmiseen. Suom. Lääkäril. 1981.
36. 2597-2600.

Rahko T. Sisäkorvaimplantti, sisäkorvakuulokoje synnynnäisesti kuuroilla lapsilla
Suom. Lääkäril. 1999

Rahko T. Synte testin kliiniset kokemukset. Kirj assa
Audiologinen diagnostiikka ja kuntoutus. Ed Jau-
hiainen T, Linkola H. Marttila T, Seitsonen H:
Picaset Oy 1985: 57-60.

Rahko T, Sorri M, Laitakari K. Äänienergian muut kuin
kuulohaitat. Kuulo ja työelämä. Lievät kuulovammat
1986, ss. 10-13.

Rahko T. Millaiseksi suunnittelisin audiologisen teknillisen
yksikön, mitä ja miksi. Kirjassa: Tekninen audiologia ja
aikuisten kuntoutus (toim. Rahko T, Lieke P), 1987, pp.
61-65.

Rahko T, Lieke P. (toim. ) Tekninen Audiologia ja aikuis-
ten kuntoutusohjaus. 110 s. Tampere, ISBN 951-99826-
1-2, Domus Offset Oy 1987.

Rahko T. Julkisten tilojen yms. kuunteluapuvälineet. Kir-
jassa Kuuleminen huonetilassa.1988, toim. Altti Salmivall,
Reijo Johansson. ss 129-133.

Rahko T. Uudet tasapainotutkimusmenetelmät. Kirjassa:Menieren tauti ja otoskleroosi
toim S Karjalainen ja E Markonniemi Kuopio 1989. 95-100.

Rahko T, Lieke P: Ohjelmoitavat kuulokoieet, otoakustiset emissiot, ATK kuulonhuollossa, ISBN 951-
95725- i-1, Toim. T. Rahko, P.Lieke, 1992.

Rahko T. Otoakustiset emissiot ja niiden käyttö, Kirjassa Ohjelmoitavat kuulokoieet, otookustiset
emissiot, ATK kuulonhuollossa, 1992, 69-81.

Rahko T. Sisäkorvan toiminta ja akustiset emissiot, Kirjassa Ohjelmoitavat kuulokoieet, otoakustiset emissiot, ATK kuulonhuollossa, toim T Rahko P Lieke1992, 104-114.

T Rahko Kuulovammaisen muut apuvälineet KirjassaTekninen Audiologia osa 1 toim Altti Salmivalli Printsystems Oy Helsinki 1997:73-81

T Rahko P Lieke toim. Digitaaliset kuulokojeet kokleaimplantit tinnituksen hoito
ISBN 951-95725-5-4 Tampere

T Rahko PAVE ja TNS tinnituksen hoidossa kirjassaT Rahko P Lieke toim. Digitaaliset kuulokojeet kokleaimplantit tinnituksen hoito
ISBN 951-95725-5-4 Tampere 50-56

T Rahko Kokleaimplantaatio synnynnäisesti kuuroilla tai prelinguaalisesti kuuroutuneilla lapsilla kirjassa T Rahko P Lieke toim. Digitaaliset kuulokojeet kokleaimplantit tinnituksen hoito
ISBN 951-95725-5-4 Tampere 85-90

Tapani Rahko OTOAKUSTISTEN EMISSIOIDEN KÄYTTÖ KUULON SEULONNASSA. Suomen Audiologian Päivien kokoomajulkaisu Helsinki 2000

T.Rahko: Puhesyntetisaattori .Julkaisu Valtakun-
nalliset Audiologian Päivät,Kuopio,1981

Kurppa, K., Malmivuo. J., Karjalainen, M ja Rahko,
T. A conversation machine for the deaf. Proceedings
of URSI. . 1980, Radiotieteen päivät.

Lehtonen. T., Malmivuo. J., Rahko, T. & Karma, P.
High-frequency audiometer. Research report No.
2/1980. Tampere University of Technology, Electro-
nics Laboratory ISBN 951-720-456-6, 1980, ss. 1-9.

T.Lehtonen,J.Malmivuo,T.Rahko,P,Karma:Hi frequency audio-
meter.Research report,Tampere University of Technology,
Electronics Laboratory,2,1-9,1980

K.Kurppa,T,Rahko,U,Laine,M,Karjalainen,J con-
versation device for the deaf.Research Report of Tampere
University of Technology Electronics Laboratory 2,7-9,1980

Rahko T. Kuulon kehittyminen yksilön ja lajin kannalta.Kirjassa Kielen vastaanotto ja käsittely aivoissa toim A Salmivalli
Turku. 1993

Rahko. T. Karjalainen. M.. Laine. U.. Hännikäi-
nen. M.P. ja Karma. P. Rehabilitation of rhe deaf
with the speech synthesizer. Proceedings of the
VIII World Congress of W.F.D. 1981. 372-375

Rahko. T. Kuulovammojen syyt. Topodiagnostiikka
ja kuntoutus. Tampereen Teknillinen Korkeakou-
lu. Opintomoniste 83. 1-62. 1987

Rahko. T. Muut kuulovammaisten apuvälineet. Lää-
ketiede 83 Medicin. Otaniemi. 1987.
178-179

Rahko. T. Kuulon kehitus ja tutkiminen sekä huono-
kuuloisen hoitoon ohjaus. Tampereen Iääkäripäi-
vät, Tampere, 1982. 27-78

Rahko T.
Mitä korvalääkäri voi tehdä huimauspotilaan hyväksi
- Organon-tiedote 1989, 2, 7-9.

Rahko T. Kuulokojesovituksen nykyiset periaatteet. Vox 1990, 12, 27-30.

T,Torikka,J,Malmivuo,T.Rahko,P.Karma:Silmävärve voi
paljastaa sairauden,Prosessori3,8-9,1979

T.Rahko: Eräitä havaintoja ja kokemuksia keskussairaala-
piirin kuulonhuollon järjestämisestä.Sairaala,371-372,1979